But it seems the dreaded voles just burrow down for the winter and hang out under the frost line in the soil which isn't very low in these parts.
As their breeding season approaches, we might see even more vole damage. They are now waking up and these critters are very prolific. Up to ten litters each year! And they can survive for 15-19 months.
We have tried traps and baits to control their numbers. But raccoons and possums have learned how to spring the traps and enjoy the peanut butter. We applied castor oil based mole repellent to our yard a few weeks ago to send them retreating to a neighbor's yard, but they don't seem to get the idea. It seems like a futile battle.
One somewhat successful approach is to spread diatomaceous products in the hole as you plant new plantings. Moles' sensitive snouts find the diatoms annoying. But most gardeners find moles even more annoying.